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Cancer immunotherapy has great promise, but is limited by diverse mechanisms used by tumors to prevent sustained antitumor immune responses. Tumors disrupt antigen presentation, T/NK-cell activation, and T/NK-cell homing through soluble and cell-surface mediators, the vasculature, and immunosuppressive cells such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells. However, many molecular mechanisms preventing the efficacy of antitumor immunity have been identified and can be disrupted by combination immunotherapy. Here, we examine immunosuppressive mechanisms exploited by tumors and provide insights into the therapies under development to overcome them, focusing on lymphocyte traffic.

Original publication




Journal article


Cancer discovery

Publication Date





522 - 526


1Center for Applied Medical Research and 2Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain; 3Ovarian Cancer Research Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and 4Ludwig Cancer Research Center and 5Department of Oncology, CHUV, Lausanne, Switzerland.


Killer Cells, Natural, T-Lymphocytes, Humans, Neoplasms, Immunotherapy, Lymphocyte Activation, Tumor Microenvironment