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Checkpoint inhibitor-based cancer immunotherapy is often combined in the clinic with other immunotherapy strategies, targeted therapies, chemotherapy or standard-of-care treatments to achieve superior therapeutic efficacy. The large number of immunotherapy combinations that are currently undergoing clinical testing necessitate the establishment of faithful criteria to prioritize optimal combinations with evidence of synergy, to determine their safety and optimal sequence of administration and to identify biomarkers of therapy resistance and response. In this review, we focus on recent developments in immunotherapy combinations and reflect on how combinations should be optimized to maximize the impact of immunotherapy in clinical oncology.

Original publication




Journal article


Nature cancer

Publication Date





665 - 680


Program of Immunology and Immunotherapy, Cima Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.


Immunologic Factors, Immunotherapy, Medical Oncology, Ambulatory Care Facilities