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In preclinical models of cancer, gene therapy with interleukin 12 (IL-12) has reached unprecedented levels of success when combined with immunotherapy approaches such as gene transfer of other cytokines and/or chemokines, costimulatory molecules or adoptive cell therapy. These combinations have been found to produce synergistic rather than additive effects. Meanwhile, IL-12 gene therapy is beginning clinical testing as a single agent, but combination strategies are at hand.

Original publication




Journal article


Trends in immunology

Publication Date





113 - 115


Animals, Humans, Mice, Neoplasms, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, Membrane Glycoproteins, Chemokines, CXC, Antigens, CD, Interleukin-2, Interleukin-12, Interleukin-15, Interleukin-18, Immunotherapy, Gene Transfer Techniques, 4-1BB Ligand, Chemokine CXCL10, Genetic Therapy, B7-1 Antigen, B7-2 Antigen