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Serum interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels and tumor neutrophil infiltration are associated with worse prognosis in advanced cancers. Here, using a large-scale retrospective analysis, we show that elevated baseline serum IL-8 levels are associated with poor outcome in patients (n = 1,344) with advanced cancers treated with nivolumab and/or ipilimumab, everolimus or docetaxel in phase 3 clinical trials, revealing the importance of assessing serum IL-8 levels in identifying unfavorable tumor immunobiology and as an independent biomarker in patients receiving immune-checkpoint inhibitors.

Original publication




Journal article


Nature medicine

Publication Date





688 - 692


Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.


Neutrophils, Humans, Neoplasms, Interleukin-8, Antibodies, Monoclonal, Protein Kinase Inhibitors, Prognosis, Treatment Failure, Survival Analysis, Retrospective Studies, Cohort Studies, Neutrophil Infiltration, Up-Regulation, Female, Male, Biomarkers, Pharmacological, Tumor Microenvironment, Cell Cycle Checkpoints, Biomarkers, Tumor, Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological