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Abstract Background: Growth and differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) is a TGF-β superfamily member physiologically expressed mainly in placenta and linked to feto-maternal tolerance. Under pathophysiologic conditions, prevention of excessive immune cell infiltration during tissue damage and cachexia induction have been ascribed to GDF-15. A recent study [Haake et al. AACR2020; Abstract #5597] elucidated a mechanism by which GDF-15 inhibits LFA-1 activation on CD8+ T cells, thus interfering with effector T cell recruitment to tissues. Importantly, several cancer entities secrete high levels of GDF-15, correlating with poor prognosis and reduced overall survival [reviewed in Front Immunol 2020 May 19;11:951]. To block this effect the GDF-15 neutralizing antibody CTL-002 was generated. In preclinical models CTL-002 demonstrated potent effector T cell shifting into tumor tissue by neutralizing GDF-15 and enhancing response to checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Methods: This is a phase 1, first-in-human (FIH), two-part, open-label clinical trial of intravenous (IV) administration of CTL-002 given as monotherapy and in combination with an anti-PD-1 antibody in subjects with advanced-stage, relapsed/refractory solid tumors who relapsed on or were refractory to a prior anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. Eligible subjects have exhausted all available approved standard treatments, including prior anti-PD1/-PD-L1 treatment, and present with a biopsy-accessible tumor for serial biopsy taking. The trial is termed GDFATHER, for “GDF-15 Antibody-mediaTed Effector cell Relocation”. Main endpoints are safety of CTL-002 monotherapy and CTL-002 combination with an anti-PD-1 antibody, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics (e.g., degree of GDF-15 neutralization achieved and change in immune-cell number and composition in the tumor tissue) as well as preliminary clinical efficacy (tumor mass reduction; anticachexia effect). In part A of the trial (dose escalation) up to 24 subjects will receive escalating doses of CTL-002 IV (0.3 – 20 mg/kg) in a „mono-followed-by-combination“-design with CTL-002 given as monotherapy and followed by combination with an anti-PD-1 checkpoint inhibitor. In part B (expansion) up to 5 cohorts with up to 25 subjects per cohort with defined tumor entities expected to be GDF-15 dependent will be treated to determine the recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) and further evaluate safety and preliminary efficacy of CTL-002 monotherapy and the combination. The study was initiated in December 2020 and enrolled the first patient on Dec 09, 2020. Cohort 4 is ongoing at time of submission (07/2021) and so far no DLT has occurred. Updated safety, biomarker and response assessments will be reported. The Identifier is NCT04725474. Citation Format: Ignacio Melero, Emiliano Calvo, Maria-Elisabeth Goebeler, Elena Garralda, Reinhard Dummer, María Rodríguez-Ruiz, María De Miguel, Cyrus Sayehli, Guzman Alonso Casal, Egle Ramelyte, Martin Schuler, Tanja Gromke, Miguel Sanmamed, Irene Moreno, Ralf Bargou, Maria Lostes, Julia-Tatjana Maul, Heike Richly, Petra Fettes, Kathrin Klar, Christine Schuberth-Wagner, Markus Haake, Joerg Wischhusen, Eugen Leo. A phase I, first-in-human clinical trial of the GDF-15 neutralizing antibody CTL-002 in subjects with advanced stage solid tumors (Acronym: GDFATHER) [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the AACR-NCI-EORTC Virtual International Conference on Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics; 2021 Oct 7-10. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Mol Cancer Ther 2021;20(12 Suppl):Abstract nr P06-01.

Original publication




Journal article


Molecular Cancer Therapeutics


American Association for Cancer Research (AACR)

Publication Date